|Site Survey and Positioning Borneo (2016)
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the
terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them.
A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface
of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership,
locations like building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes
required by government or civil law, such as property sales.
Surveyors work with elements of geometry, trigonometry, regression analysis, physics,
engineering, metrology, programming languages and the law. They use equipment like total
stations, robotic total stations, GPS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, radios, handheld
tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS and surveying software.
Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the
beginning of recorded history. The planning and execution of most forms of construction
require it. It is also used in transport, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal
boundaries for land ownership. It is an important tool for research in many other scientific